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Brown: Atlas of Regional Anesthesia, 3rd ed., Copyright © 2006 Saunders, An Imprint of Elsevier
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References

General

Benhamou D, Pequignot F, Auroy Y, Jougla E, Clergue F, Laxenaire MC, Lienhart A: Factors associated with use of regional anaesthesia: a multivariate analysis in seven surgical procedures in France.  Eur J Anaesthesiol  2004; 21:576-578.

Bonica JJ: The Management of Pain, vols I–II. 2nd ed.. Philadelphia, Lea & Febiger, 1990.

In: Brown DL, ed. Regional Anesthesia and Analgesia,  Philadelphia: Saunders; 1996.

Brown DL: Spinal, epidural and caudal anesthesia.   In: Miller RD, ed. Anesthesia,  4th ed.. New York: Churchill Livingstone; 1994:1505-1533.

In: Brown DL, ed. Perioperative analgesia. In Problems in Anesthesia, Vol 2. Philadelphia: Lippincott; 1988.

In: Brown DL, ed. Regional anesthesia at Virginia Mason Medical Center: a clinical perspective. In Problems in Anesthesia, Vol 1. Philadelphia: Lippincott; 1987.

Cahill DR, Orland MJ, Miller GM: Atlas of Human Cross-Sectional Anatomy: With CT and MR Images,  3rd ed.. New York, Wiley-Liss, 1995.

Carron H, Korbon GA, Rowlingson JC: Regional Anesthesia: Techniques and Clinical Applications,  Orlando, Grune & Stratton, 1984.

Christoforidis AJ: Atlas of Axial, Sagittal, and Coronal Anatomy,  Philadelphia, Saunders, 1988.

In: Cousins M, Bridenbaugh PO, ed. Neural Blockade,  2nd ed.. Philadelphia: Lippincott; 1988.

Covino BG, Scott DB: Handbook of Epidural Anaesthesia and Analgesia,  Orlando, Grune & Stratton, 1985.

In: Eriksson E, ed. Illustrated Handbook in Local Anaesthesia,  2nd ed.. Philadelphia: Saunders; 1980.

Gosling JA, Harris PF, Humpherson JR, Whitmore I, Willan PLT: Atlas of Human Anatomy with Integrated Text,  London, Gower Medical Publishing, 1985.

Grant JCB: An Atlas of Anatomy,  5th ed.. Baltimore, Williams & Wilkins, 1962.

In: Hahn MB, McQuillan PM, Sheplock GJ, ed. Regional Anesthesia: An Atlas of Anatomy and Techniques,  St. Louis: Mosby; 1995.

Katz J: Atlas of Regional Anesthesia,  Norwalk, CT, Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1985.

Katz J, Renck H: Handbook of Thoraco-Abdominal Nerve Block,  Orlando, Grune & Stratton, 1987.

Labat G: Regional Anesthesia: Its Technique and Clinical Application,  Philadelphia, Saunders, 1923.

Lee LA, Posner KL, Domino KB, Caplan RA, Cheney FW: Injuries associated with regional anesthesia in the 1980s and 1990s: a closed claims analysis.  Anesthesiology  2004; 101:143-152.

McMinn RMH, Hutchings RT: Color Atlas of Human Anatomy,  Chicago, Year Book, 1977.

Melloni JL, Dox I, Melloni HP, Melloni BJ: Melloni’s Illustrated Review of Human Anatomy,  Philadelphia, Lippincott, 1988.

Moore DC: Regional Block,  4th ed.. Springfield, IL, Charles C Thomas, 1965.

Moore DC: Stellate Ganglion Block,  Springfield, IL, Charles C Thomas, 1954.

Raj PP: Handbook of Regional Anesthesia,  New York, Churchill Livingstone, 1985.

Thompson GE, Brown DL: The common nerve blocks.   In: Nunn JF, Utting JE, Brown BR, ed. General Anaesthesia,  5th ed.. London: Butterworth; 1989:1049-1085.

In: Waldman SD, Winnie AP, ed. Interventional Pain Management,  Philadelphia: Saunders; 1996.

Winnie AP: Plexus Anesthesia, Vol I: Perivascular Techniques of Brachial Plexus Block,  Philadelphia, Saunders, 1983.

Woodburne RT: Essentials of Human Anatomy,  5th ed.. New York, Oxford University Press, 1973.

Introductory Chapter

Bashein G, Haschke RH, Ready LB: Electrical nerve location: numerical and electrophoretic comparison of insulated vs uninsulated needles.  Anesth Analg  1984; 63:919-924.

Carpenter RL, Mackey DC: Local anesthetics.   In: Barash PG, Cullen BF, Stoelting RK, ed. Clinical Anesthesia,  Philadelphia: Lippincott; 1989.

DeJong R: Local anesthetic pharmacology.   In: Brown DL, ed. Regional Anesthesia and Analgesia,  Philadelphia: Saunders; 1996.

Horton WG: Use of peripheral nerve stimulator.   In: Brown DL, ed. Regional Anesthesia at Virginia Mason Medical Center: A Clinical Perspective. Problems in Anesthesia, Vol 1. Philadelphia: Lippincott; 1987.

McMahon D: Managing regional anesthesia equipment.   In: Brown DL, ed. Regional Anesthesia at Virginia Mason Medical Center: A Clinical Perspective. Problems in Anesthesia, Vol 1. Philadelphia: Lippincott; 1987:592.

Schafhalter-Zoppoth I, McCulloch CE, Gray AT: Ultrasound visibility of needles used for regional nerve block: an in vitro study.  Reg Anesth Pain Med  2004; 29:480-488.

Schorr MR: Needles: some points to think about.  Anesth Analg  1966; 45:509-513.(part I), 514–26 (part II)

Upper Extremity Blocks

Benhamou D: Axillary plexus block using multiple nerve stimulation: a European view.  Reg Anesth Pain Med  2001; 26:495-498.

Borene SC, Edwards JN, Boezaart AP: At the cords, the pinkie towards: interpreting infraclavicular motor responses to neurostimulation.  Reg Anesth Pain Med  2004; 29:125-129.

Brown DL, Cahill DR, Bridenbaugh LD: Supraclavicular nerve block: anatomic analysis of a method to prevent pneumothorax.  Anesth Analg  1993; 76:530-534.

Chan VW: Applying ultrasound imaging to interscalene brachial plexus block.  Reg Anesth Pain Med  2003; 28:340-343.

Choyce A, Chan VW, Middleton WJ, Knight PR, Peng P, McCartney CJ: What is the relationship between paresthesia and nerve stimulation for axillary brachial plexus block?.  Reg Anesth Pain Med  2001; 26:100-104.

DeJong RH: Axillary block of the brachial plexus.  Anesthesiology  1961; 22:215-225.

Desroches J: The infraclavicular brachial plexus block by the coracoid approach is clinically effective: an observational study of 150 patients.  Can J Anaesth  2003; 50:253-257.

Finucane BT, Yilling F: Safety of supplementing axillary brachial plexus blocks.  Anesthesiology  1989; 70:401-403.

Grice SC, Morell RC, Balestrieri FJ, Stump DA, Howard G: Intravenous regional anesthesia: evaluation and prevention of leakage under the tourniquet.  Anesthesiology  1986; 65:316-320.

Hadzic A, Arliss J, Kerimoglu B, Karaca PE, Yufa M, Claudio RE, Vloka JD, Rosenquist R, Santos AC, Thys DM: A comparison of infraclavicular nerve block versus general anesthesia for hand and wrist day-case surgeries.  Anesthesiology  2004; 101:127-132.

Klaastad O, Lilleas FG, Rotnes JS, Breivik H, Fosse E: A magnetic resonance imaging study of modifications to the infraclavicular brachial plexus block.  Anesth Analg  2000; 91:929-933.

Lavoie J, Martin R, Tetrault JP, Cote DJ, Colas MJ: Axillary plexus block using a peripheral nerve stimulator: single or multiple injections.  Can J Anaesth  1992; 39:583-586.

Lillie PE, Glynn CJ, Fenwick DG: Site of action of intravenous regional anesthesia.  Anesthesiology  1984; 61:507-510.

Moore DC: Regional Block,  4th ed.. Springfield, IL, Charles C Thomas, 1965.

Neal JM, Hebl JR, Gerancher JC, Hogan QH: Brachial plexus anesthesia: essentials of our current understanding.  Reg Anesth Pain Med Erratum in Reg Anesth Pain Med  2002;2002; 2727:402-428.625.

Partridge BL, Katz J, Benirschke K: Functional anatomy of the brachial plexus sheath: implications for anesthesia.  Anesthesiology  1987; 66:743-747.

Pere P, Pitkanen M, Tuominen M, Edgren J, Rosenberg PH: Clinical and radiologic comparison of perivascular and transarterial techniques of axillary brachial plexus block.  Br J Anaesth  1993; 70:276-279.

Perlas A, Chan VW, Simons M: Brachial plexus examination and localization using ultrasound and electrical stimulation: a volunteer study.  Anesthesiology  2003; 99:429-435.

Peterson DO: Shoulder block anesthesia for shoulder reconstruction surgery.  Anesth Analg  1985; 64:373-375.

Sharrock NE, Bruce G: An improved technique for locating the interscalene goove.  Anesthesiology  1976; 44:431-433.

Sukhani R, Garcia CJ, Munhall RJ, Winnie AP, Rodvold KA: Lidocaine distribution following intravenous regional anesthesia with different tourniquet inflation techniques.  Anesth Analg  1989; 68:633-637.

Thompson GE, Rorie DK: Functional anatomy of the brachial plexus sheaths.  Anesthesiology  1983; 59:117-122.

Vester-Andersen T, Christiansen C, Hansen A, Sorensen M, Meisler C: Interscalene brachial plexus block: area of analgesia, complications and blood concentrations of local anesthetics.  Acta Anaesth Scand  1981; 25:81-84.

Vester-Andersen T, Christiansen C, Sorensen M, Eriksen C: Perivascular axillary block. I. Blockade following 40 ml 1% mepivacaine with adrenaline.  Acta Anaesth Scand  1982; 26:519-523.

Vester-Andersen T, Christiansen C, Sorensen M, Kaalund-Jergensen H, Saugbjerg P, Schultz-Moller K: Perivascular axillary block.  II. Influence of volume of local anaesthetic on neural blockade. Acta Anaesth Scand  1983; 27:95-98.

Vester-Andersen T, Eriksen C, Christiansen C: Perivascular axillary block. III. Blockade following 40 ml of 0.5%, 1% or 1.5% mepivacaine with adrenaline.  Acta Anaesth Scand  1984; 28:95-98.

Vester-Andersen T, Husum B, Lindeburg T, Borrits L, Gothgen I: Perivascular axillary block. IV. Blockade following 40, 50 or 60 ml of mepivacaine 1% with adrenaline.  Acta Anaesth Scand  1984; 28:99-105.

Vester-Andersen T, Husum B, Lindeburg T, Borrits L, Gothgen I: Perivascular axillary block. V. Blockade following 60 ml of mepivacaine 1% injected as a bolus or as 30 + 30 ml with a 20-min interval.  Acta Anaesth Scand  1984; 28:612-616.

Vester-Andersen T, Husum B, Zaric D, Eriksen C: Perivascular axillary block. VII. The effect of a supplementary dose of 20 ml mepivacaine 1% with adrenaline to patients with incomplete sensory blockade.  Acta Anaesth Scand  1986; 30:231-234.

Wehling MJ, Koorn R, Leddell C, Boezaart AP: Electrical nerve stimulation using a stimulating catheter: what is the lower limit?.  Reg Anesth Pain Med  2004; 29:230-233.

Williams SR, Chouinard P, Arcand G, Harris P, Ruel M, Boudreault D, Girard F: Ultrasound guidance speeds execution and improves the quality of supraclavicular block.  Anesth Analg  2003; 97:1518-1523.

Winnie AP: Plexus Anesthesia, Vol I: Perivascular Techniques of Brachial Plexus Block,  Philadelphia, Saunders, 1983.

Winnie AP: Interscalene brachial plexus block.  Anesth Analg  1970; 49:455-466.

Lower Extremity Blocks

Beck GP: Anterior approach to sciatic nerve block.  Anesthesiology  1963; 24:222-224.

Borgeat A, Blumenthal S, Karovic D, Delbos A, Vienne P: Clinical evaluation of a modified posterior anatomical approach to performing the popliteal block.  Reg Anesth Pain Med  2004; 29:290-296.

Bridenbaugh PO: The lower extremity: somatic block.   In: Cousins M, Bridenbaugh PO, ed. Neural Blockade,  2nd ed.. Philadelphia: Lippincott; 1988:417-442.

Brown TCK, Dickens DRV: A new approach to lateral cutaneous nerve of thigh block.  Anaesth Intensive Care  1986; 14:126-127.

Capdevila X, Biboulet P, Morau D, Bernard N, Deschodt J, Lopez S, d'Athis F: Continuous three-in-one block for postoperative pain after lower limb orthopedic surgery: where do the catheters go?.  Anesth Analg  2002; 94:1001-1006.

Capdevila X, Macaire P, Dadure C, Choquet O, Biboulet P, Ryckwaert Y, D’Athis F: Continuous psoas compartment block for postoperative analgesia after total hip arthroplasty: new landmarks, technical guidelines, and clinical evaluation.  Anesth Analg  2002; 94:1606-1613.

Chayen D, Nathan H, Clayen M: The psoas compartment block.  Anesthesiology  1976; 45:95-99.

Dalens B, Tanguy A, Vanneuville G: Lumbar plexus blocks and lumbar plexus nerve blocks (letter).  Anesth Analg  1989; 69:850-857.

Dalens B, Tanguy A, Vanneuville G: Lumbar plexus block in children: a comparison of two procedures in 50 patients.  Anesth Analg  1988; 67:750-758.

Dalens B, Tanguy A, Vanneuville G: Sciatic nerve block in children: comparison of the posterior, anterior, and lateral approaches in 180 pediatric patients.  Anesth Analg  1990; 70:131-137.

Hopkins PM, Ellis FR, Halsall PJ: Evaluation of local anaesthetic blockade of the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve.  Anaesthesia  1991; 46:95-96.

Ilfeld BM, Morey TE, Wang RD, Enneking FK: Continuous popliteal sciatic nerve block for postoperative pain control at home: a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study.  Anesthesiology  2002; 97:959-965.

Labat G: Regional Anesthesia: Its Technique and Clinical Application,  Philadelphia, Saunders, 1923.

McLeod DH, Wong DHW, Claridge RJ: Lateral popliteal sciatic nerve block compared with subcutaneous infiltration for analgesia following foot surgery.  Can J Anaesth  1994; 41:673-676.

McNicol LR: Sciatic nerve block for children: anterior approach for postoperative pain relief.  Anaesthesia  1985; 40:410-414.

Moore DC: Regional Block,  4th ed.. Springfield, IL, Charles C Thomas, 1965.

Neal JM: Assessment of lower extremity nerve block: reprise of the four P’s acronym.  Reg Anesth Pain Med  2002; 27:618-620.

Parkinson SK, Mueller JB, Little WL, Bailey SL: Extent of blockade with various approaches to the lumbar plexus.  Anesth Analg  1989; 68:243-248.

Rorie DK, Byer DE, Nelson DO, Sittipong R, Johnson KA: Assessment of block of the sciatic nerve in the popliteal fossa.  Anesth Analg  1980; 59:371-376.

Schurman DJ: Ankle-block anesthesia for foot surgery.  Anesthesiology  1976; 44:348-352.

Sinha A, Chan VW: Ultrasound imaging for popliteal sciatic nerve block.  Reg Anesth Pain Med  2004; 29:130-134.

Vloka JD, Hadzic A, April E, Thys DM: Anterior approach to the sciatic nerve block: the effects of leg rotation.  Anesth Analg  2001; 92:460-462.

Vloka JD, Hadzic A, April E, Thys DM: The division of the sciatic nerve in the popliteal fossa: anatomical implications for popliteal nerve blockade.  Anesth Analg  2001; 92:215-217.

Winnie AP, Ramamurthy S, Durrani Z: The inguinal paravascular technic of lumbar plexus anesthesia: the “3-in-1” block.  Anesth Analg  1973; 52:989-996.

Zaric D, Boysen K, Christiansen J, Haastrup U, Kofoed H, Rawal N: Continuous popliteal sciatic nerve block for outpatient foot surgery—a randomized, controlled trial.  Acta Anaesthesiol Scand  2004; 48:337-341.

Head and Neck Blocks

Anthony M: Headache and the greater occipital nerve.  Clin Neurol Neurosurg  1992; 94:297-301.

Barton S, Williams JD: Glossopharyngeal nerve block.  Arch Otolaryngol  1971; 93:186-188.

Bedder MD, Lindsay DL: Glossopharyngeal nerve block using ultrasound guidance: a case report of a new technique.  Reg Anaesth  1989; 14:304-307.

Bovim G, Sand T: Cervicogenic headache, migraine without aura and tension-type headache: diagnostic blockade of greater occipital and supra-orbital nerves.  Pain  1992; 51:43-48.

In: Eriksson E, ed. Illustrated Handbook in Local Anaesthesia,  2nd ed.. Philadelphia: Saunders; 1980.

Feitl ME, Krupin T: Neural blockade for ophthalmologic surgery.   In: Cousins M, Bridenbaugh PO, ed. Neural Blockade,  2nd ed.. Philadelphia: Lippincott; 1988:577-592.

Gotta AW, Sullivan CA: Anaesthesia of the upper airway using topical anaesthetic and superior laryngeal nerve block.  Br J Anaesth  1981; 53:1055-1057.

Guntamukkala M, Hardy PAJ: Spread of injectate after stellate ganglion block in man: an anatomical study.  Br J Anaesth  1991; 66:643-644.

Hamilton RC: Techniques of orbital regional anaesthesia.  Br J Anaesth  1995; 75:88-92.

Hogan QH, Erickson SJ, Abram SE: Computerized tomography-guided stellate ganglion blockade.  Anesthesiology  1992; 77:596-599.

Johnson RW: Anatomy for ophthalmic anaesthesia.  Br J Anaesth  1995; 75:80-87.

Kroll DA, Knight PR, Mullin V: Electrocardiographic changes in patients with stellate ganglion blockade.  Reg Anaesth  1982; 7:157-159.

Macintosh RR, Ostlere M: Local Analgesia: Head and Neck,  Edinburgh, E & S Livingstone, 1955.

Moore DC: Stellate Ganglion Block,  Springfield, IL, Charles C Thomas, 1954.

Murphy TM: Somatic blockade of head and neck.   In: Cousins M, Bridenbaugh PO, ed. Neural Blockade,  2nd ed.. Philadelphia: Lippincott; 1988:533-558.

Slappendel R, Thijssen HOM, Crul BJP, Merx JL: The stellate ganglion in magnetic resonance imaging: a quantification of anatomic variability.  Anesthesiology  1995; 83:424-426.

Wang BC, Bogart B, Hillman DE, Turndorf H: Subarachnoid injection—a potential complication of retrobulbar block.  Anesthesiology  1989; 71:845-847.

Winnie AP, Ramamuthy S, Durrani Z, Radonjic R: Interscalene cervical plexus block: a single injection technique.  Anesth Analg  1975; 54:370-375.

Wong DHW: Regional anaesthesia for intraocular surgery.  Can J Anaesth  1993; 40:635-657.

Truncal Blocks

Amid PK, Shulman AG, Lichtenstein IL: Local anesthesia for inguinal hernia repair: step-by-step procedure.  Ann Surg  1994; 220:735-737.

Ben-David B, Lee E: The falling column: a new technique for interpleural catheter placement (letter).  Anesth Analg  1990; 71:212.

Boezaart AP, De Beer JF, Nell ML: Early experience with continuous cervical paravertebral block using a stimulating catheter.  Reg Anesth Pain Med  2003; 28:406-413.

Boezaart AP, Koorn R, Rosenquist RW: Paravertebral approach to the brachial plexus: an anatomic improvement in technique.  Reg Anesth Pain Med  2003; 28:241-244.

Bugedo GJ, Carcamo CR, Mertens RA, Dagino JA, Munoz HR: Preoperative percutaneous ilioinguinal and iliohypogastric nerve block with 0.5% bupivacaine for post-herniorrhaphy pain management in adults.  Reg Anaesth  1990; 15:130-133.

Capdevila X, Macaire P, Dadure C, Choquet O, Biboulet P, Ryckwaert Y, D’Athis F: Continuous psoas compartment block for postoperative analgesia after total hip arthroplasty: new landmarks, technical guidelines, and clinical evaluation.  Anesth Analg  2002; 94:1606-1613.

Conacher ID: Resin injection of thoracic paravertebral spaces.  Br J Anaesth  1988; 61:657-661.

Covino BG: Interpleural regional anesthesia (editorial).  Anesth Analg  1987; 67:427-429.

Crossley AWA, Hosie HE: Radiographic study of intercostal nerve blockade in healthy volunteers.  Br J Anaesth  1987; 59:149-154.

Karmakar MK: Thoracic paravertebral block.  Anesthesiology  2001; 95:771-780.

Karmakar MK, Critchley LA, Ho AM, Gin T, Lee TW, Yim AP: Continuous thoracic paravertebral infusion of bupivacaine for pain management in patients with multiple fractured ribs.  Chest  2003; 123:424-431.

Katz J, Renck H: Handbook of Thoraco-Abdominal Nerve Block,  Orlando, Grune & Stratton, 1987.

Klein SM, Bergh A, Steele SM, Georgiade GS, Greengrass RA: Thoracic paravertebral block for breast surgery.  Anesth Analg  2000; 90:1402-1405.

Klein SM, Greengrass RA, Weltz C, Warner DS: Paravertebral somatic nerve block for outpatient inguinal herniorrhaphy: an expanded case report of 22 patients.  Reg Anesth Pain Med  1998; 23:306-310.

Magee DJ: Orthopedic Physical Assessment,  Philadelphia: Saunders; 1992:319-323.

Moore DC: Intercostal nerve block: spread of India ink injected to the rib’s costal groove.  Br J Anaesth  1981; 53:325-329.

Moore DC, Bush WH, Scurlock JE: Intercostal nerve block: a roentgenographic anatomic study of technique and absorption in humans.  Anesth Analg  1979; 59:815-825.

Mulroy MF: Intercostal block at the mid-axillary line.  Reg Anaesth  1985; 10:A39.

Murphy DF: Interpleural analgesia.  Br J Anaesth  1993; 71:426-434.

Naja MZ, Ziade MF, El Rajab M, El Tayara K, Lonnqvist PA: Varying anatomical injection points within the thoracic paravertebral space: effect on spread of solution and nerve blockade.  Anaesthesia  2004; 59:459-463.

Richardson J, Sabanathan S: Thoracic paravertebral analgesia.  Acta Anaesth Scand  1995; 39:1005-1015.

Richardson J, Sabanathan S, Jones J, Shah RD, Cheema S, Mearns AJ: A prospective, randomized comparison of preoperative and continuous balanced epidural or paravertebral bupivacaine on post-thoracotomy pain, pulmonary function and stress responses.  Br J Anaesth  1999; 83:387-392.

Rocco A, Reiestad F, Gudman J, McKay W: Intrapleural administration of local anesthetics for pain relief in patients with multiple rib fractures.  Reg Anaesth  1987; 12:10-14.

Stromskag KE, Hauge O, Steen PA: Distribution of local anesthetics injected into the interpleural space, studied by computerized tomography.  Acta Anaesth Scand  1990; 34:323-326.

Thompson GE, Brown DL: The common nerve blocks.   In: Nunn JF, Utting JE, Brown BR, ed. General Anaesthesia,  5th ed.. London: Butterworth; 1989:1049-1085.

Thompson GE, Moore DC: Celiac plexus, intercostal, and minor peripheral blockade.   In: Cousins M, Bridenbaugh PO, ed. Neural Blockade,  2nd ed.. Philadelphia: Lippincott; 1988:503-532.

Tverskoy M, Cozacov C, Ayache M, Bradely EL, Kissin I: Postoperative pain after inguinal herniorrhaphy with different types of anesthesia.  Anesth Analg  1990; 70:29-35.

Weltz CR, Greengrass RA, Lyerly HK: Ambulatory surgical management of breast carcinoma using paravertebral block.  Ann Surg  1995; 222:19-26.

Chronic and Cancer Pain

Artuso JD, Stevens RA, Lineberry PJ: Postdural puncture headache after lumbar sympathetic block: a report of two cases.  Reg Anesth  1991; 16:288-291.

Augustinsson LE: Spinal cord stimulation in peripheral vascular disease and angina pectoris.  J Neurosurg Sci  2003; 47(Suppl 1):37-40.

Baker R, Dreyfuss P, Mercer S, Bogduk N: Cervical transforaminal injection of corticosteroids into a radicular artery: a possible mechanism for spinal cord injury.  Pain  2002; 103:211-215.

Botwin KP, Gruber RD, Bouchlas CG, Torres-Ramos FM, Sanelli JT, Freeman ED, Slaten WK, Rao S: Fluoroscopically guided lumbar transforaminal epidural steroid injections in degenerative lumbar stenosis: an outcome study.  Am J Phys Med Rehabil  2002; 81:898-905.

Brown DL: Neurolytic celiac plexus block in your practice.   In: Brown DL, ed. Regional Anesthesia at Virginia Mason Medical Center: A Clinical Perspective. Problems in Anesthesia, Vol 1. Philadelphia: Lippincott; 1987:612-621.

Brown DL, Rorie DK: Altered reactivity of isolated segmental lumbar arteries of dogs following exposure to ethanol and phenol.  Pain  1994; 56:139-143.

Bush K, Hillier S: Outcome of cervical radiculopathy treated with periradicular/epidural corticosteroid injections: a prospective study with independent clinical review.  Eur Spine J  1996; 5:319-325.

Cameron T: Safety and efficacy of spinal cord stimulation for the treatment of chronic pain: a 20-year literature review.  J Neurosurg Spine  2004; 100:254-267.

Carette S, Marcoux S, Truchon R, Grondin C, Gagnon J, Allard Y, Latulippe M: A controlled trial of corticosteroid injections into facet joints for chronic low back pain.  N Engl J Med  1991; 325:1002-1007.

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